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Anatomy is a scientific study concerned with the structure of living things. While a great amount of information is available about the anatomy human, anatomy is a general term that also covers all plants and animals as well. Anatomy is usually divided into gross anatomy or microscopic anatomy (although for the purposes of this article, we are organizing it into human, animal, and plant anatomy and providing both gross and microscopic anatomy for each section). Gross anatomy is the study of anatomical structures that are visible by the naked eye while microscopic anatomy is the study of anatomical structures aided with microscopes. The study of anatomy began at least as early as 1600 BCE in Egypt with the Edwin Smith Papyrus, which shows the heart and its vessels, among other human organs. Since then, it has been studied across a variety of different cultures, from ancient Greece and Rome, through the Medieval period (thanks to the help of Muslim physicians and scientists), and still studied by large amount of modern cultures and society. A huge contribution to the study of anatomy occurred in 1858 when Henry Gray published Anatomy: Descriptive and Surgical. In the past hundred years, anatomical research has reaped the benefits of technological developments and a growing understanding of sciences such as evolutionary and molecular biology. While there is still much to be learned of various anatomical structures, the rate at which we are learning appears to be increasing exponentially.

Human Anatomy

Human anatomy is the most universally taught anatomical study. Physicians, dentists, physiotherapists, nurses, paramedics, and radiographers all study human anatomy, the pillar of medical science. Not only is human anatomy studied for science, it is often a topic of study for visual arts when drawing a human figure, particularly basic concepts of how muscles and bones function and deform with movement. In an effort to improve his art by better understanding human anatomy, Leonardo da Vinci advanced both human anatomy and its representation in art. While the definition of human anatomy is the study of structure within the human body, it often becomes necessary to explain the function in order to understand structure.
  • SEER Training: Anatomy & Physiology provides an in-depth review of the structure and function of the human body, detailing cells, tissues, and membranes that make up our bodies and how our major systems function to help us develop and stay healthy.
  • Anatomic Images Online offers a wide range of anatomical images and diagrams of the human body, including organ diagrams, cell diagrams, and much more.
  • Body Basics gives a general overview of the human body and its various regulatory systems. Though comprehensive, this resource is more of a general guide aimed at those without much prior anatomical knowledge.
  • InnerBody Guide to Human Anatomy Online provides diagrams for a variety of regulatory systems for the human body that gives helpful information about the vital organs for each system.
  • Anatomic Images Online includes a large library of human anatomical components and organs as general as the heart and as specific as the descending thoracic aorta. Diagrams are graphical renderings that often include text and labels.
  • Gray's Anatomy of the Human Body is an online edition of Gray's classic 1918 edition publication (originally titled Anatomy: Descriptive and Surgical), with 1,247 vibrant engravings, many in color, in addition to an index with 13,000 entries ranging from the Antrum of Highmore to the Zonule of Zinn.
  • A Guided Tour of the Visible Human offers a unique perspective to human anatomy by taking a series of cross-sections of human anatomy and splicing them into an animation to give it a 3D visualization.
  • Inside the Cell provides a comprehensive overview of the human cell, covering functions of the cell, cellular reproduction, and cell aging and death.
  • Anatomy of the Brain covers the anatomical details of the brain, providing in-depth descriptions of the brain's components and functions as well as the cell structure.
  • Anatomy, created by the National Library of Medicine, offers a very comprehensive list of links, ranging from broad overviews of anatomy and physiology to more specific conditions and even includes pictures, tutorials, and videos.

Animal Anatomy

All animals have the following similarities: They digest food, perform a gas exchange, excrete waste, circulate nutrient and waste products to and from cells, coordinate movements, defend themselves, and reproduce and disperse their species. Some species have complex organ system to perform these functions while others have specialized tissues that complete these functions. Understanding animal anatomy helps scientists better understand evolution and how different species (and regulatory systems) came to be. Not only is animal anatomy important to those studying evolution or specializing in a particular species, it is a necessity for veterinarians and those involved with animal care.
  • Anatomy of Animals outlines the major anatomical features of a variety of animal life forms, from sponges and cnidarians to birds and mammals. This resource includes a variety information from regulatory systems to general characteristics of the various animals.
  • Animal Cell Anatomy provides a cross-section of an animal cell, complete with labels and descriptions of the various components of the cell.
  • Avian Anatomy and Morphology thoroughly describes the anatomy and morphology of birds, covering every anatomical element from sensory studies (touch and sight) to brain and nervous system overview.
  • Herpetology covers the academic study of reptiles and amphibians as well as the art and science of breeding them. This resource contains several links to anatomical descriptions and diagrams of both amphibians and reptiles.
  • The Placental Mammal and Reproduction provides a full-detail study of placental mammals and the scientific details of their internal reproduction process, including even a chart that contains birth statistics for a variety of mammalian species.
  • The Sensory World of Mammals offers thorough details and scientific explanations about mammals' sensory capabilities, going as far as hypothesizing whether and how mammals perceive time differently.
  • Veterinary Carnivore Anatomy Instruction serves as a complete resource to veterinary anatomy, offering vast amounts of links about carnivore anatomy, delopmental anatomy/embryology, and countless other veterinary topics.
  • Cat Anatomy Tutorial provides a comprehensive review of cat anatomy, with numerous images of cat muscles, organs, and skeletons. This resource labels its images well and provides substantial macro- and micro-detail of the skeletal system down to the smallest bones of the skull.
  • The Online Cat Dissection includes a large amount of cat dissention images, mostly of organs and parts involving the digestive, uro-genital, and respiratory system. This resource also includes a vast list of feline anatomy definitions.
  • A Manual of the Anatomy of Vertebrated Animals covers a comprehensive overview of vertebrate anatomy, including Amphibia, Reptilia, birds, Sauropsida, and Mammalia. This resource also includes a general view of the organization of vertebrata.
  • Introduction to Insect Anatomy marks the introduction to a rather long indexing of insect anatomy. Filled with diagrams and textual overview, this resource covers respiratory system, nervous system, and a long index of index head, thorax, and abdomen description.

Plant Anatomy

Also known as phytotomy, plant anatomy is the study of the internal structure of plants. It originally included plant morphology, the description of the external structure of plants; however, they are now considered separate fields of study. Current research trends in plant anatomy are now studied at the cellular level, using tissue cross-sections and microscopy. Plant anatomy is usually divided into six categories: Flower anatomy, leaf anatomy, stem anatomy, fruit/seed anatomy, wood anatomy, and root anatomy. While plant anatomy often doesn't receive as much emphasis or importance as animal or human anatomy, it has a huge place in botanical research. 
  • Plant Anatomy: The study of plant cell and tissue structure provides a long, comprehensive review of plant anatomy, covering cell structure, regulatory processes, and a variety of other anatomical processes including plant growth. This resource includes diagrams with labels as well as text.
  • Photographic Atlas of Plant Anatomy offers a large library of microscopic anatomical plant images, including cell structures and a variety of different plant types, cross sections, and plant parts.
  • Plant Anatomy and Morphology overviews the basic anatomical components of plants, outlining organs, cells, and tissue systems with diagrams and text.
  • Anatomy of Plants outlines the major anatomical features of a variety of plant life forms, from algae to angiosperms. This resource includes a variety of information from regulatory systems like photosynthesis to general characteristics of the various plants.
  • Plant Anatomy provides a basic outline of plant anatomy, including basic structure and function as well as a labeled diagram with definitions.
  • Plants and Their Structure details the structure and organization of plant anatomy, covering the very general and specifics of Parenchyma, Collenchyma, Sclerenchyma, Xylem, Phloem, and Epidermal Cells, with cellular images and diagrams included.
  • Plant Structure and Function offers a detailed guide to plant anatomy, filled with labeled diagrams and charts. This resource provides specific details about tissue organization and the anatomy of specific parts of plants.
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